Purchase and acquisition is a transaction in which a healthy or frugal bank buys assets and assumes liabilities (including all insured deposits) from an unhealthy bank or savings. This is the most common and preferred method used by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to deal with failing banks. Insured depositors of the insolvent institution immediately become depositors of the acquiring bank and have access to their insured funds. As part of a purchase and acquisition transaction, the FDIC organizes the sale of a financial institution in difficulty or insolvent to a healthy institution. In addition to the custodian for personal checks, savings and other insured accounts, the acquiring bank can also purchase other assets (such as loans or mortgages) from the failing bank. Certain asset classes, such as.B. Risky loans, however, are never or rarely transferred into purchase and acquisition transactions. Purchase and acquisition is a broad category that includes a variety of more specialized transactions, such as loss-sharing and bridge banks, an interim measure in which an institution temporarily continues the activities of the insolvent bank and gives it some leeway to find a buyer so that it can once again become a continuous business. Buying and assumption (P&A) are the most common of the three basic resolution methods used by the FDIC.
The other two are as follows: in a type of purchase and acceptance called a full bank transaction, all the assets and liabilities of the failing bank are transferred to the acquiring bank. A valuation of FDIC`s assets determines the value of the assets acquired. However, there is an important difference: the accumulated interest ends in all accounts as soon as the troubled bank is closed. The acquiring bank becomes responsible for restoring interest rates and other conditions on accounts and loans and can change them – it is not obliged to change the conditions of its predecessor. Of course, depositors have the right to withdraw their funds from the new institution without penalty. The FDIC and host bank often try to make the transition as smooth as possible for consumers. For example, direct deposits are automatically redirected to the new institution. Bridge banking transactions are considered better than deposit withdrawals (see below), but require more time, effort, and responsibility on the part of the SEC.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the FDIC used bridge banking transactions with financial institutions such as Capital Bank & Trust Co., First Republic Bank, and First American Bank & Trust. During the 2008-2009 global financial crisis, the U.S. government launched the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to provide financial support to banks deemed “too big to fail.” .